More than 18 billion euros the Commerzbank had received as guarantees, capital injection or participation by the government in the course of the financial crisis. Also Hypo Real Estate, WestLB, SachsenLB, and IKB obtained support from the state. The EU approved the state aid. In principle, state aid is regarded as an economic advantage, thus, being prohibited. In his Working Paper, Tuschl examines the legal basis of state aid in terms of the EU laws, pointing out the exemptions the EU Commission referred to in practice.
IMFS Working Paper No. 96
"Rechtsgrundlagen für die Vereinbarkeit von Finanzhilfen für Kreditinstitute mit dem Beihilferecht der EU im Rahmen der Finanzmarktkrise"
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